2023 Index of Economic Freedom


Rule of Law

Property Rights3.0

Judicial Effectiveness4.4

Government Integrity6.5

Government Size

Tax BurdenN/A

Government SpendingN/A

Fiscal HealthN/A

Regulatory Efficiency

Business Freedom35.0

Labor Freedom46.5

Monetary FreedomN/A

Open Markets

Trade FreedomN/A

Investment FreedomN/A

Financial FreedomN/A

Create a Comparison Chart

See how Syria compares to another country using any of the measures in the Index.

Download PDF
Quick Facts
  • Population:
    • 18.3 million
  • GDP (PPP):
    • $68.4 billion
  • Unemployment:
    • 60.0%
  • Inflation (CPI):
  • FDI Inflow:
  • Public Debt:

Ongoing chaos and the devastation caused by more than a decade of conflict again preclude any ranking of Syria in the Index of Economic Freedom. In addition to a horrific death toll, Syria’s civil war has caused the near collapse of economic output and has largely wiped out economic freedom.

Even before the ongoing conflict, the fragility of the foundations of economic freedom was reflected in very low scores for property rights and corruption. Politically motivated enforcement severely undermines the rule of law, and state intervention has undermined many aspects of the entrepreneurial framework that are needed for economic dynamism.



The Assad family has ruled Syria since Hafez al-Assad’s military coup in 1970. Bashar al-Assad succeeded his father in 2000 and failed to fulfill promises to open the socialist economy and ease repression. A sectarian civil war between predominantly Sunni rebels and the Alawite-dominated regime has killed more than 500,000 Syrians and driven about 5.7 million refugees out of the country, but Assad’s regime, supported by Iran, Russia, and the terrorist Hezbollah, has largely defeated the fractured armed opposition. Assad claimed to have won 95 percent of the votes in the May 2021 presidential election. Syria’s economy remains severely depressed.

Rule of Law

Property Rights 3.0 Create a Graph using this measurement

Judicial Effectiveness 4.4 Create a Graph using this measurement

Government Integrity 6.5 Create a Graph using this measurement

The overall rule of law is weak in Syria. The country’s property rights score is below the world average; its judicial effectiveness score is below the world average; and its government integrity score is below the world average.

Government Size

The civil conflict has caused mounting damage to the economy. Economic policy has focused on protecting the regime and maintaining the military’s fighting capacity. Government spending is driven by political concerns. Economic mismanagement has brought the economy to the brink of collapse.

Regulatory Efficiency

The repressive and fragile business environment, already burdened by heavy state intervention and gravely exacerbated by the civil war and severely damaged infrastructure, continues to affect entrepreneurial activity. Functioning labor markets do not exist in many war-torn locations. Monetary stability has long been eroded.

Open Markets

Political instability, made worse by significant security threats, is a significant impediment to trade and investment. The investment environment lacks transparency and efficiency. The financial infrastructure has been significantly degraded. Severely limited access to financing impedes any meaningful private business development.

Country's Score Over Time

View Chart of Scores over Time

Regional Ranking

1United Arab Emirates70.90.7
8Saudi Arabia58.32.8

View all countries ›

Back to Top